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Batch Factors

Batch calculations are the basis for almost all glass technology. From converting a desired composition into the raw materials for a batch through batch changes to melting problem solving batch calculations are an essential tool.

The basis of these calculations is the oxide conversion factors for the chemicals and raw materials. These are detailed here for the most common glassmaking materials and some that are encountered less frequently but non the less may be useful.

Material

Formula

Mol. Wt.

Oxides in Glass

Mol. Wt. of Oxides

Conversion Factor

Alumina

Al2O3

101.9

Al2O3

101.9

1.000

Aluminium Hydroxide

Al2O3.3H2O

156.0

Al2O3

101.9

0.653

Aluminium Sulphate

Al2(SO4)3

342.1

Al2O3

101.9

0.298

Barium Carbonate

BaCO3

197.4

BaO

153.4

0.777

Barium Chromate

BaCrO4

253.4

BaO

Cr2O3

153.4

152.0

0.605

0.300

Barium Sulphate

BaSO4

233.4

BaO

153.4

0.658

Boric Acid

B2O3.3H2O

123.7

B2O3

69.6

0.563

Borax (hydrated)

Na2B4O7.10H2O

381.5

Na2O

B2O3

62.0

69.6

0.162

0.365

Borax (anhydrous)

Na2B4O7

201.3

Na2O

B2O3

62.0

69.6

0.308

0.692

Limestone *

CaCO3

100.1

CaO

56.1

0.561

Calcium Phosphate

Ca3(PO4)2

310.2

CaO

P2O5

56.1

142.0

0.541

0.459

Dolomite *

CaCO3.MgCO3

184.4

CaO

MgO

56.1

40.3

0.304

0.219

Lead Oxide (Litharge)

PbO

223.2

PbO

223.2

1.0

Lead Oxide (Red Lead)

Pb3O4

685.6

PbO

223.2

0.977

Lithium Carbonate

Li2CO3

73.9

Li2O

29.9

0.405

Magnesium Carbonate

MgCO3

84.3

MgO

40.3

0.478

Potassium Carbonate

K2CO3

138.2

K2O

94.2

0.682

Potassium Nitrate

KNO3

101.1

K2O

94.2

0.466

  Sand *(silica)

SiO2

60.1

SiO2

60.1

1.0

Sodium Carbonate

Na2CO3

106.0

Na2O

62.0

0.585

Sodium Nitrate

NaNO3

85.0

Na2O

62.0

0.365

Sodium Sulphate

Na2SO4

142.1

Na2O

62.0

0.436

* These are natural materials and the actual analysis may differ from the theoretical one. It is always best to used an actual analysis wherever possible.

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